FTPTelnet

Steven Sturges

Snort FAQ

README.ftptelnet

FTPTelnet

Steven Sturges ssturges@sourcefire.com Thanks to Dan Roelker droelker@sourcefire.com, Marc Norton mnorton@sourcefire.com, and Andy Mullican amullican@sourcefire.com for their help with the design.

== Overview == FTPTelnet serves two purposes, decoding and normalizing Telnet traffic, and decoding and interpreting FTP traffic.

FTPTelnet handles stateful and stateless processing. It saves state between individual packets. However maintaining correct state is dependent on the reassembly of the client side of the stream (i.e., a loss of coherent stream data results in a loss of state).

– Telnet – Given a telnet data buffer, FTPTelnet will normalize the buffer with respect to telnet commands and option negotiation, eliminating telnet command sequences per RFC 854. It will also determine when a telnet connection is encrypted, per the use of the telnet encryption option per RFC 2946.

– FTP – Given an FTP command channel buffer, FTPTelnet will interpret the data, identifying FTP commands and parameters, as well as FTP response codes and messages. It will enforce correctness of the parameters, determine when an FTP command connection is encrypted, and determine when an FTP data channel is opened.

== Configuration == FTPTelnet has a very “rich” user configuration. Users can configure checks for a few specific telnet exploits, and specify individual FTP servers and clients with a variety of options, which should allow the user to emulate any type of web server or client.

It is VERY IMPORTANT to understand the configuration semantics, so an administrator can know what to expect from the normalization routines and protocol correctness checks.

Within the discussions of each option, occurrence of a / in the option parameters implies that one or the other parameter must be specified when that option is used. For example, with a yes/no option, the presence of the option causes detection to occur when tracking state. A yes results in an alert being generated.

– Global Configuration – The global configuration deals with configuration options that determine the global functioning of FTPTelnet. The following example gives the generic global configuration format:

preprocessor ftp_telnet: global [followed by the configuration options]

There can only be a single global configuration. An error will be reported otherwise.

The global configuration options are described below:

*inspection_type stateful/stateless * Indicate whether to operate in stateful stateless mode.

  • encrypted_traffic yes/no * Detect and alert on encrypted telnet and FTP sessions.

  • check_encrypted * Instructs the preprocessor to continue checking a data stream after it is encrypted, looking for an eventual decrypted data. This is really only applicable if the encrypted_traffic is used, however that is not enforced.

– Telnet configuration – The telnet configuration deals with configuration options relating to the telnet protocol. The following example gives the generic telnet configuration format:

preprocessor ftp_telnet_protocol: telnet [followed by the options]

There should only be a single telnet configuration, however, subsequent ones simply override configuration options established prior.

The telnet configuration options are described below:

  • ports { port [port] … } * This specifies on what ports to check for telnet data. Typically, this will only include 23, however, additional ports may be specified since certain network routers and other devices employ telnet as a means of administration. Because encrypted traffic (SSL) cannot be decoded, adding ports 22 (SSH) could yield unexpected results.

  • normalize * This turns on normalization for the telnet connections. Typically, it should be turned on.

  • ayt_attack_thresh number * Detect and alert on consecutive are you there [AYT] commands beyond the threshold number specified. This addresses a few specific vulnerabilities relating to bsd-based implementations of telnet.

  • detect_anomalies * In order to support certain options, Telnet supports subnegotiation. Per the Telnet RFC, subnegotiation begins with SB (subnegotiation begin) and must end with an SE (subnegotiation end). However, certain implementations of Telnet servers will ignore the SB without a corresponding SE. This is anomalous behavior which could be an evasion case. Being that FTP uses the Telnet protocol on the control connection, it is also susceptible to this behavior. The detect_anomalies option enables alerting on Telnet SB without the corresponding SE.

– FTP configuration – The FTP configuration deals with configuration options relating to FTP servers and FTP clients. Each of these will be discussed individually below, as the configurations are different.

** Server Configuration ** There are two types of server configurations: default and [IP]. The default configuration: - preprocessor ftp_telnet_protocol: ftp server default [server options]

This configuration supplies the default FTP server configuration for any server that is not individually configured. It is suggested that you start with the default configuration and craft individual server configurations as required by the environment.

For specific IP’s (i.e., FTP servers with known behavior), the configuration is very similar: - preprocessor ftp_telnet_protocol: ftp server [IP] [server options]

The server options described below may be used in both the default and specific IP configuration.

  • ports { port [port] … } * This specifies on what ports to check for FTP data. Typically, this will only include 21, however, additional ports may be specified.

  • print_cmds Useful for debugging. This turns on printing of the configuration information for each ftp command listed for this server. By default it is not in use, as it generates a substantial amount of output when snort is run from the command line.

  • ftp_cmds { cmd [cmd] … } * This specifies additional FTP commands outside of those checked by default within the preprocessor. The preprocessor may be configured to generate an alert when it sees a command it does not recognize.

Aside from the default commands recognized, it may be necessary to allow the use of the “X” commands, specified in RFC 775. To do so, use the following ftp_cmds option. Since these are rarely used by FTP client implementations, they are not included in the defaults.

ftp_cmds { XPWD XCWD XCUP XMKD XRMD }

  • def_max_param_len number * This specifies the default maximum parameter length for all commands in bytes. If the parameter for an FTP command exceeds that length, and the preprocessor is configured to do so, an alert will be generated. This is used to check for buffer overflow exploits within FTP servers.

  • alt_max_param_len number { cmd [cmd] … } * This specifies the maximum parameter length for the specified commands in bytes, overriding the default. If the parameter for that FTP command exceeds that length, and the preprocessor is configured to do so, an alert will be generated. It can be used to restrict specific commands to small parameter values. For example the USER command – usernames may be no longer than 16 bytes, so the appropriate configuration would be: alt_max_param_len 16 { USER }

  • chk_str_fmt { cmd [cmd] … } * This causes the preprocessor to check for string format attacks on the specified commands.

  • cmd_validity cmd < fmt > * This specifies the valid format for parameters of a given command. fmt is as follows: int Param must be an integer number Param must be an integer between 1 and 255 char Param must be a single char, and one of date Param follows format specified where # = Number, C=Char, []=optional, |=OR, {}=choice, anything else=literal (i.e., .+- ) string Param is string (effectively unrestricted) host_port Param must a host port specifier, per RFC 959. long_host_port Parameter must be a long host port specified, per RFC 1639 extended_host_port Parameter must be an extended host port specified, per RFC 2428 {}, | One of, alternate values enclosed within {}, [] Optional value enclosed within {}, optional value enclose within []

Examples of the cmd_validity option are shown below. These examples are the default checks (per RFC 959 and others) performed by the preprocessor. cmd_validity MODE < char SBC > cmd_validity STRU < char FRP > cmd_validity ALLO < int [ char R int ] > cmd_validity TYPE < { char AE [ char NTC ] | char I | char L [ number ] } > cmd_validity PORT < host_port >

A cmd_validity line in the configuration can be used to override these defaults and/or add a check for other commands. A few examples follow

This allows additional modes, including mode Z which allows for

# zip-style compression. cmd_validity MODE < char ASBCZ >

Allow for a date in the MDTM command.

cmd_validity MDTM < [ date nnnnnnnnnnnnnn[.n[n[n]]] ] string >

MDTM is an odd case that is worth discussing…

While not part of an established standard, certain FTP servers accept MDTM commands that set the modification time on a file. The most common among servers that do, accept a format using YYYYMMDDHHmmss[.uuu]. Some others accept a format using YYYYMMDDHHmmss[+|-]TZ format. The example above is for the first case (time format as specified in http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-ftpext-mlst-16.txt)

To check validity for a server that uses the TZ format, use the following:

cmd_validity MDTM < [ date nnnnnnnnnnnnnn[{+ -}n[n]] ] string >
  • telnet_cmds yes/no * Detect and alert when telnet cmds are seen on the FTP command channel.

  • ignore_telnet_erase_cmds yes/no

This option allows Snort to ignore telnet escape sequences for erase character (TNC EAC) and erase line (TNC EAL) when normalizing FTP command channel. Some FTP servers do not process those telnet escape sequences.

  • data_chan * Causes the FTP preprocessor to force the rest of snort to ignore the FTP data channel connections. This means that NO INSPECTION other than state (preprocessor AND rules) will be performed on that data channel. It can turned on to improve performance – especially with respect to large file transfers – by ignoring traffic.

Use of “data_chan” is deprecated in favor of “ignore_data_chan”. This option will be removed in a future release.

  • ignore_data_chan yes/no * When set to “yes”, causes the FTP preprocessor to force the rest of snort to ignore the FTP data channel connections. NO INSPECTION other than state (preprocessor AND rules) will be performed on that data channel. It can be turned on to improve performance – especially with respect to large file transfers from a trusted source – by ignoring traffic. If your rule set includes virus-type rules, it is recommended that this option not be used.

** Client Configuration ** There are two types of client configurations: default and [IP]. The default configuration: - preprocessor ftp_telnet_protocol: ftp client default [client options]

This configuration supplies the default FTP client configuration for any client that is not individually configured. It is suggested that you start with the default configuration and craft individual client configurations as required by the environment.

For specific IP’s (i.e., FTP clients with known behavior), the configuration is very similar: - preprocessor ftp_telnet_protocol: ftp client [IP] [client options]

The client options described below may be used in both the default and specific IP configuration.

  • max_resp_len number * This specifies the maximum length for all response messages in bytes. If the message for an FTP response (everything after the 3 digit code) exceeds that length, and the preprocessor is configured to do so, an alert will be generated. This is used to check for buffer overflow exploits within FTP clients.

  • bounce yes/no * Detect and alert on FTP bounce attacks. An FTP bounce attack occurs when the FTP PORT command is issued and the specified host does not match the host of the client.

  • bounce_to { CIDR,[port|portlow,porthi] } * When bounce is turned on, this allows the PORT command to use the IP address [CIDR format] and port (or inclusive port range ) without generating an alert. It can be used to deal with proxied FTP connections where the FTP data channel is different from the client. Two examples of the bounce_to command: 1) This allows bounces to 192.168.1.1 port 20020 – i.e., the use of PORT 192,168,1,1,78,52. bounce_to { 192.168.1.1,20020 } 2) This allows bounces to 192.168.1.1 ports 20020 to 20040 – i.e., the use of PORT 192,168,1,1,78,xx, where xx is 52 through 72, inclusive. bounce_to { 192.168.1.1,20020,20040 } 3) This allows bounces to 192.168.1.1 port 20020 and 192.168.1.2 port 20030 bounce_to { 192.168.1.1,20020 192.168.1.2,20030 } 4) This allows bounces to IPv6 address fe8::5 port 59340. NOTE: IPv6 support must be enabled. bounce_to { fe8::5,59340 }

  • telnet_cmds yes/no * Detect and alert when telnet cmds are seen on the FTP command channel.

  • ignore_telnet_erase_cmds yes/no

This option allows Snort to ignore telnet escape sequences for erase character (TNC EAC) and erase line (TNC EAL) when normalizing FTP command channel. Some FTP clients do not process those telnet escape sequences.

– Default Configuration – The following gives the default configurations:

Global

preprocessor ftp_telnet: global \ inspection_type stateless

Telnet protocol

preprocessor ftp_telnet_protocol: telnet \ ports { 23 }

Default FTP Server

# The default FTP server configuration for FTP command validation. # Most of this comes from RFC 959, with additional commands being # drawn from other RFCs/Internet Drafts that are commonly in use. # # The default_max_param_len is somewhat arbitrary, but is taken # from the majority of the snort FTP rules that alert on parameter # size > 100 characters. This was the case as of 18 Sep 2004. preprocessor ftp_telnet_protocol: ftp server default \ ports { 21 } \ def_max_param_len 100 \ ftp_cmds { USER PASS ACCT CWD CDUP SMNT \ QUIT REIN PORT PASV TYPE STRU MODE RETR STOR STOU APPE ALLO REST \ RNFR RNTO ABOR DELE RMD MKD PWD LIST NLST SITE SYST STAT HELP NOOP } \ ftp_cmds { AUTH ADAT PROT PBSZ CONF ENC } \ ftp_cmds { FEAT OPTS } \ ftp_cmds { MDTM REST SIZE MLST MLSD } \ alt_max_param_len 0 { CDUP QUIT REIN PASV STOU ABOR PWD SYST NOOP } \ cmd_validity MODE < char SBC > \ cmd_validity STRU < char FRP > \ cmd_validity ALLO < int [ char R int ] > \ cmd_validity TYPE < { char AE [ char NTC ] | char I | char L [ number ] } > \ cmd_validity PORT < host_port >

Default FTP Client

preprocessor ftp_telnet_protocol: ftp client default \ max_resp_len 100

== Writing rules == {TBD?} Writing rules for normalized telnet changes from the telnet_decode preprocessor.

The content parameter in the snort rule language searches the NORMALIZED telnet and FTP buffers. This means that rules that include things that are normalized, such as telnet option negotiation for encryption, i.e. |FF FA 26|, these rules will not alert. They should be changed to add the rawbytes parameter to specify look at the raw data, not the normalized data.

== Conclusion == While some of this configuration information can be overwhelming, the defaults are sufficient to get started. Some of the examples provided, especially with respect to the FTP command validation, are derived from tests conducted with traffic generated from various publicly available freeware and/or trialware telnet & FTP client and server implementations.

== Alerts ==

FTP Telnet uses generator ID 125 for FTP and generator ID 126 for telnet.

The following alerts will be generated for FTP:

SID Description — ———– 1 Telnet command on FTP command channel 2 Invalid FTP command 3 FTP parameter length overflow 4 FTP malformed parameter 5 Possible string format attempt in FTP command/parameter 6 FTP response length overflow 7 FTP command channel encrypted 8 FTP bounce attack 9 Evasive Telnet command on FTP command channel

The following alerts will be generated for Telnet:

SID Description — ———– 1 Telnet consecutive AYT overflow 2 Telnet data encrypted 3 Subnegotiation Begin without matching Subnegotiation End